In computing, Internet Key Exchange is the protocol used to set up a security association (SA) RFC updated IKE to version two (IKEv2) in December RFC firewall, etc. IKEv1 consists of two phases: phase 1 and phase 2. In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite that In , the working group published RFC through RFC with the NRL having the first working implementation. .. HMAC-SHA with IPsec; RFC The Internet IP Security PKI Profile of IKEv1/ISAKMP, IKEv2, and PKIX . IKEv1; IKEv2; IPsec; Multicast IPsec; Mobile IPv6; PKI; EAP; RADIUS; DNS . RFC The Internet IP Security PKI Profile of IKEv1/ISAKMP, IKEv2, and PKIX .
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The operation IKEv1 can be broken down into two phases. Following explanation is based on the assumption that the peers are using Pre-Shared Key for authentication. Payload has a header and other information which is useful to DOI.
Internet Key Exchange
Initiator and Responder must calculate a value, called as cookie. Responder Cookie value is kept as empty, becuase this is the very first message. The purpose ikevv1 Message 2 is to inform Initiator the SA attributes agreed upon.
Most of the fields are the same as in the packet sent by the initiator. Only one proposal payload and transform payload is there in Message 2, which is the agreed proposal and transform payload. Also note that both the cookie values are filled. The direction of third message is from the Initiator to the Efc. The direction of fourth message is from the Responder to the Initiator.
IKEv1 Protocol, IKEv1 message exchange, IKEv1 Main, Aggressive and Quick Modes
A Nonce is a very large random number used in IKE. IKE Nounce random number is also used to calculate keying material.
Three keys are generated by both peers for authentication and encryption. Identification payload and Hash Payload are used for identitification and authentication.
Implemented Standards – Libreswan
Identification payload and Hash Payload are used for identitification and authentication from Responder. In IKEv1 Phase1 Aggressive Mode, all the necessary information required to generate the Diffie-Hellman shared secret is exchanged in the first two messages between peers.
Identification payload is also added in the first message. Note that the Identification payload is sent as Clear-Text, not encrypted. Now the Responder can generate the Diffie-Hellman shared secret. The Responder generates the Diffie-Hellman shared secret.
Responder generates the Hash also for Authentication purposes.
Now the Initiator can generate the Diffie-Hellman shared secret. The Initiator generates the Diffie-Hellman shared secret. Initiator generates the Hash also for Authentication purposes.
The Hash payload is sent as encrypted. Phase 1 can be negotiated using Main Mode 6 messages or Aggressive Mode 3 messages. Ofcourse, the message exchanges in Phase 2 Quick Mode are protected by encryption and authentication, using the keys derived in the Phase 1. The Diffie-Hellman Key generation is carried out again using new Nonces exchanged between peers.
Since there is no meaning in showing encrypted capture screen shots, I am not attaching any Wireshark capture screen shots for Quick Mode.
Internet Key Exchange Version 1 (IKEv1)
Each peer will generate at least two SAs. One in inbound direction and in outbound direction.